styrene melting point

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Gives off irritating or toxic fumes (or gases) in a fire. The compound is often called simply SBS or SBS rubber. Styrofoam is made of polystyrene beads. The remaining 1-phenylethanol is dehydrated to give styrene: Extraction from pyrolysis gasoline is performed on a limited scale. [50][51][52][53] Studies on rats have yielded contradictory results,[51][52] but epidemiologic studies have observed a synergistic interaction with noise in causing hearing difficulties. The result is a long … Data compiled as indicated in comments: B - John E. Bartmess M - Michael M. Meot-Ner (Mautner) and Sharon G. Lias ALS- Hussein Y. Afeefy, Joel F. Liebman, and Stephen E. Stein Note: Please consider using thereaction search for this species. Polymer Name: T m 1 (°C): Poly(acrylonitrile), syndiotactic: 321: Poly(6-aminocaproic acid) Stephen K. Ritter, Chemical & Engineering News, 19 March 2007, p.46. Melting point is 240 °C or 464.00 °F Heat capacity of a polystyrene cup? Ethane, along with ethylbenzene, is fed to a dehydrogenation reactor with a catalyst capable of simultaneously producing styrene and ethylene. Styrene occurs naturally in small quantities in some plants and foods (cinnamon, coffee beans, balsam trees[disambiguation needed] and peanuts)[7] and is also found in coal tar. Poly(styrene-butadiene-styrene) (pol-ee-STYE-reen-byoo-tah-DYE-een-STYE-reen) is a thermoplastic block copolymer of styrene and butadiene. The dehydrogenation effluent is cooled and separated and the ethylene stream is recycled to the alkylation unit. In 2012, more than 5.4 million tonnes of SBR were processed worldwide. Polymerization becomes … This is achieved using superheated steam (up to 600 °C) over an iron(III) oxide catalyst. The process attempts to overcome previous shortcomings in earlier attempts to develop production of styrene from ethane and benzene, such as inefficient recovery of aromatics, production of high levels of heavies and tars, and inefficient separation of hydrogen and ethane. ; 90 ± 5.2 i.v. The as-spun melt fibre has a crystalline melting point about 80 °C. [41] The U.S. EPA does not have a cancer classification for styrene,[42] but it has been the subject of their Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS) program. at or above 22.8°C and below 37.8°C.Combustible. It is reported[24] that an approximately 9:1 mixture of styrene and ethylbenzene is obtained, with a total styrene yield of over 60%. He called the liquid "styrol" (now styrene). Styrene (/ˈstaɪriːn/)[5] is an organic compound with the chemical formula C6H5CH=CH2. [22] The polymerisation reaction is exothermic; hence, there is a real risk of thermal runaway and explosion. Technical Report No. Polychloroprene , or neoprene (CR) is an oil-resistant rubber, which also resists degradation from sun, ozone and weather. This is a polymer with polymer chains growing out of it, and which are a different kind of polymer than the backbone chain. The styrene content typically varies between 15 and 40 percent. Chem., 2013, 4, 3453, Zuren Pan polymer chemistry Industry Press 2007, M.T. %, ASTM D 1238 6g/10 min 200°C/5kg Styrene acrylonitrile resin is a copolymer plastic consisting of styrene and acrylonitrile.It is also known as SAN.It is widely used in place of polystyrene owing to its greater thermal resistance. T triple: Triple Point Temperature (K). ABS is a terpolymer made by polymerizing styrene and acrylonitrile in the presence of polybutadiene. Styrene is the precursor to polystyrene and several copolymers. V c: Critical Volume (m 3 /kg-mol). with 10-15ppm 4-tert-butylcatechol, Jindong Zeng, Jian Zhu Organoselenium compoundes:development of a universal “living” free radical polymerization mediator. [29] This is known as autopolymerisation, and will take place at ambient temperatures and above. Ethylbenzene is produced via a Friedel–Crafts reaction between benzene and ethylene; originally this used aluminum chloride as a catalyst, but in modern production this has been replaced by zeolites. The vast majority of styrene is produced from ethylbenzene, and almost all ethylbenzene produced worldwide is intended for styrene production. Not applicable f. Initial boiling point … [34][35] On 10 June 2011, the U.S. National Toxicology Program has described styrene as "reasonably anticipated to be a human carcinogen". Styrene will polymerise spontaneously to polystyrene, without the need of external initiators. 74,2013.University of Massachusetts Lowell, Andreea Simona CURIAC, Andrei PETRE, PREPARAT.ION OF ADHESIVES FROM THE EXPANDABLE POLYSTYRENE WASTE. Violent polymerization may be initiated by alkali metal-graphite composites, but yllithium, dibenzoyl peroxide, azoisobutyronitrile or di-tert-butyl peroxide. [36][37] However, a STATS author describes[38] a review that was done on scientific literature and concluded that "The available epidemiologic evidence does not support a causal relationship between styrene exposure and any type of human cancer". Styrene: Chemical Identity & Physical Properties Published by SIRC, Jan.2014. ... Normal melting (fusion) point (K). Find chemicals information Poly(styrene) at guidechem, professional and easy to use. The vast majority of styrene is produced from ethylbenzene,[20] and almost all ethylbenzene produced worldwide is intended for styrene production. Polystyrene (foam): -0.04 oC/sec weights of polystyrene cup: 113.8g thickness of polystyrene cup: 0.1mm The styrene-butadiene-styrene (SBS) is a kind of thermoplastic elastomer which has the same elasticity with the rubber in normal temperature, and can be melt to flow at high temperature like plastics, called plastic material. Bull., 1985, (065), p. 25]. From p. 348: "Analysis as well as synthesis has equally proved that styrol and the vitreous mass (for which we propose the name of metastyrol) possess the same constitution per cent.". I bet even boiling water steam would work well too. In this process, ethylbenzene is treated with oxygen to form the ethylbenzene hydroperoxide. Its glass transition temperature is approximately 105 °C. [54][55][56], On 7 May 2020, a gas, reported to be styrene, leaked from a tank at the LG Chem (LG Polymers India Private Limited) plant at RR Venkatapuram, Visakhapatnam, Andra Pradesh, India. Ethylbenzene is produced via a Friedel–Crafts reaction between benzene and ethylene; originally this used aluminum chloride as a catalyst, but in modern production this has been replaced by zeolites. A copolymer is a polymer made from two monomers, in this case, styrene (C6H5CH=CH2) and 1,3-butadiene (CH2=CHCH=CH2). polystyrene). A storage hazard above 32°C, involved in several industrial explosions caused by violent, exothermic polymerization [Bond, J., Loss Prev. STYRENE MONOMER is a colorless, oily liquid, moderately toxic, flammable. [21] The reaction is highly endothermic and reversible, with a typical yield of 88–94%. Boiling Point: 145.2±7.0 °C at 760 mmHg Vapour Pressure: 6.2±0.1 mmHg at 25°C Enthalpy of Vaporization: 36.6±0.8 kJ/mol Flash Point: 31.1±0.0 °C Index of Refraction: (STYRENE-BUTADIENE RUBBER) MSDS NO. This is the sort of question that I'd usually answer with a link to LMGTFY, but in this case you get a pass, because you need to know what styrofoam is before you can get a good answer out of google. Styrene is one of the most important monomers produced by the chemical industry today. Melting Points of Polymers in Celsius. In Building Materials in Civil Engineering, 2011 (1) The Styrene-butadiene-styrene (SBS) Modified Asphalt. [17] However, the styrene that was obtained from cinnamic acid seemed different from the styrene that was obtained by distilling storax resin: the latter was optically active. Styrene is also co-produced commercially in a process known as POSM (Lyondell Chemical Company) or SM/PO (Shell) for styrene monomer / propylene oxide. A … The leak occurred in the early morning hours while workers were preparing to reopen the plant, which was closed due to the COVID-19 pandemic. The low melting point (105°C) of this material further enhances its applicability. The reaction products of deoxyguanosine with 3,4-dimethyl-, p-methyl-, m-methyl-, m-ethoxy-, p-bromo-, m-chloro- and unsubstituted styrene oxide were isolated and characterized. In chemical terms, polystyrene is a long chain hydrocarbon wherein alternating carbon centers are attached to phenyl groups (a derivative of benzene). Density 0.906 g/mL at 20 °C vapor density 3.6 (vs air) vapor pressure 12.4 mm Hg ( 37.7 °C) refractive index n 20/D 1.546(lit.) Poly (styrene-butadiene-styrene) or SBS, is a hard rubber that's used to modify asphalt, to make soles of shoes, tire treads, and other places where durability is important. Styrene-ethylene-butylene-styrene, also known as SEBS, is an important thermoplastic elastomer (TPE) which behaves like rubber without undergoing vulcanization.SEBS is strong and flexible, has excellent heat and UV resistance and is easy to process. Polym. Class IC Flammable Liquid: Fl.P. In 1839, the German apothecary Eduard Simon isolated a volatile liquid from the resin (called storax or styrax (Latin)) of the American sweetgum tree (Liquidambar styraciflua). This process is being developed by Snamprogetti and Dow. Its backbone chain is made up of three segments. POLYSTYRENE, MONOCARBOXY TERMINATED, AVE RAGE MW CA. Guidechem provides Poly(styrene) chemical database query, including CAS registy number 9003-53-6, Poly(styrene) MSDS (Material Safety Data Sheet), nature, English name, manufacturer, function/use, molecular weight, density, boiling point, melting point, structural formula, etc. [20], Styrene can be produced from toluene and methanol, which are cheaper raw materials than those in the conventional process. Around 80% of styrene is produced by the dehydrogenation of ethylbenzene. This is energy intensive and is further complicated by the tendency of styrene to undergo thermally induced polymerisation into polystyrene,[22] requiring the continuous addition of polymerization inhibitor to the system. Product and company identification a. Journal of Young Scientist, Volume V, 2017. Oct 14th – 16th 2015, nanocon,Brno, Prof. Dr. Arno Behr. Waleed Nour Eldien, Esra A. Almnem. Source: Adapted from ATSDR Toxicological Profile for Styrene (Tables 4.1, 4.2) and the website of the European Styrene Producers Association. [26], A laboratory synthesis of styrene entails the decarboxylation of cinnamic acid:[27], Styrene was first prepared by this method.[28]. Chemical and physical properties of Styrene. 9003-55-8 LG Chem, Ltd. Daesan Plant 1/6 SBR1502 1. Approximately 25 million tonnes of styrene were produced in 2010,[6] increasing to around 35 million tonnes by 2018. [10] By 1845, the German chemist August Hofmann and his student John Blyth had determined styrene's empirical formula: C8H8. This hydroperoxide is then used to oxidize propylene to propylene oxide, which is also recovered as a co-product. 100-42-5)", "EPA settles case against Phoenix company for toxic chemical reporting violations", "EPA Fines California Hot Tub Manufacturer for Toxic Chemical Release Reporting Violations", "Government Says 2 Common Materials Pose Risk of Cancer", Epidemiologic Studies of Styrene and Cancer: A Review of the Literature, "Exposure to styrene and chronic health effects: mortality and incidence of solid cancers in the Danish reinforced plastics industry", "Styrene entry in National Toxicology Program's Thirteenth Report on Carcinogens", "After 40 years in limbo: Styrene is probably carcinogenic", "Neurotoxic effects of styrene: further evidence", "Vizag Gas Leak Live News: Eleven dead, several hospitalised after toxic gas leak from LG Polymers plant", "Hundreds in hospital after leak at Indian chemical factory closed by lockdown", CDC – Styrene – NIOSH Workplace Safety and Health Topic, Safety and Health Topics | Styrene (OSHA), Occupational Exposure to Chemicals and Hearing Impairment, Preventing Hearing Loss Caused by Chemical (Ototoxicity) and Noise Exposure Safety and Health Information Bulletin (SHIB),, Articles with dead external links from June 2018, Articles with permanently dead external links, Pages using collapsible list with both background and text-align in titlestyle, Articles containing unverified chemical infoboxes, All articles with links needing disambiguation, Articles with links needing disambiguation from August 2020, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, TWA 100 ppm C 200 ppm 600 ppm (5-minute maximum peak in any 3 hours), Note that Blyth and Hofmann state the empirical formula of styrene as C, This page was last edited on 27 December 2020, at 20:26. Lower and upper explosion limit / flammability limit, Lower flammable limit: 0.9% by volume; Upper flammable limit: 6.8% by volume, Partition coefficient n-octanol/water (log value), Copyright 2017 © ChemicalBook. This process has suffered from low selectivity associated with the competing decomposition of methanol. For further details of the history of styrene, see: F. W. Semmler, (Blyth and Hofmann, 1845a), p. 348. A thermoplastic polymer is one that can be converted back and forth between liquid and solid states by alternate heating and cooling. Melting point:-31 °C Boiling point: 145-146 °C(lit.) [25], Another route to styrene involves the reaction of benzene and ethane. Polystyrene's chemical formula is (C 8H 8) n; it contains the chemical elements carbon and hydrogen. The addition of styrene lowers the price and contributes to the good wear and bonding properties. Styrene oxide is subsequently hydrolyzed in vivo to styrene glycol by the enzyme epoxide hydrolase. Development of the process is ongoing. Guidechem provides ABS Resins chemical database query, including CAS registy number 9003-56-9, ABS Resins MSDS (Material Safety Data Sheet), nature, English name, manufacturer, function/use, molecular weight, density, boiling point, melting point, structural formula, etc. [43] The National Toxicology Program of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services has determined that styrene is "reasonably anticipated to be a human carcinogen". It belongs to the chemical family of styrene terpolymer 32 with good strength and toughness. The compound evaporates easily and has a sweet smell, although high concentrations have a less pleasant odor. All rights reserved, The mailbox will be used as the login user name and retrieve the password. This derivative of benzene is a colorless oily liquid, although aged samples can appear yellowish. Poly(styrene-co-butadiene) butadiene 4wt. The presence of the vinyl group allows styrene to polymerize. An example is the 2019 explosion of the tanker Stolt Groenland; in this incident 5,250 metric tons of styrene monomer detonated while the ship was docked in Ulsan, Republic of Korea. Find chemicals information ABS Resins at guidechem, professional and easy to use. and air, styrene slowly undergoes polymerization and oxidation with format ion of peroxides. Go To: Top, Mass spectrum (electron ionization), UV/Visible spectrum, References, Notes Data compilation copyrightby the U.S. Secretary of Commerce on behalf of the U.S.A.All rights reserved. Styrene oxide is considered toxic, mutagenic, and possibly carcinogenic. LD50 in mice (mg/kg): 660 ± 44.3 i.p. I. Weitere Beiträge zur Kenntniß der Fumarsäure und Maleïnsäure" Rudolph Fittig, Camille Petri, Justus Liebigs, unsaturated polyesters used in resins and thermosetting compounds, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, International Agency for Research on Cancer, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, "New Process for Producing Styrene Cuts Costs, Saves Energy, and Reduces Greenhouse Gas Emissions", "Determination of styrene in selected foods", "Ueber den flüssigen Storax (Styrax liquidus)", "On styrole, and some of the products of its decomposition", "Ueber das Styrol und einige seiner Zersetzungsproducte", "Ueber Distyrol, ein neues Polymere des Styrols", "Sur les caractères de la benzine et du styrolène, comparés avec ceux des autres carbures d'hydrogène", "Recherches sur l'acide cinnamique et sur le cinnamène", "Studien über die s.g. aromatischen Säuren", "Die Identität von Styrol und Cinnamol, ein neuer Körper aus Styrax", "Material Safety Data Sheet Styrene (monomer) MSDS", "OPPT Chemical Fact Sheets (Styrene) Fact Sheet: Support Document (CAS No. Styrene-butadiene or styrene-butadiene rubber (SBR) describe families of synthetic rubbers derived from styrene and butadiene (the version developed by Goodyear is called Neolite).These materials have good abrasion resistance and good aging stability when protected by additives. In 1845, French chemist Emil Kopp suggested that the two compounds were identical,[16] and in 1866, Erlenmeyer suggested that both "cinnamol" and styrene might be vinylbenzene. The addition of styrene also improves the strength, abrasion resistance, and blend properties of polybutadiene. Styrene, 99%, stab. Styrene Monomer: Environmental, Health, Safety, Transport and Storage guidelines March 3rd 2007 Styrene Producers Association CEFIC Sector Group Avenue Van Nieuwenhuyse 4/2 B1160 Brussels Belgium. (File Format: Jpg, Gif, Png, PDF,Zip,Txt,doc or xls Max Size: 3MB), The username will be used as the login user name and retrieve the password, Boiling point or initial boiling point and boiling range. Articles of Styrene are included as well. CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (, R. Fittig und F. Binder "Ueber die Additionsproducte der Zimmtssaure" in "Untersuchungen über die ungesättigten Säuren. The term block copolymer means that one secti… The autopolymerisation reaction can only be kept in check by the continuous addition of polymerisation inhibitors. Melting Point: Properties Safety and Handling Computational chemical data 0 Suppliers 2,5-Furandione, polymer with ethenylbenzene and 2,4,4-trimethyl-1-pentene, ammonium salt EU SORPTION PROPERTIES OF GRAPHEN OXIDE AND STYRENE COMPOSITES FOR SR-85 AND CS-137 BRYNYCH. Polymer Type: Thermoplastic. The chains of between 70 and 80% by weight styrene and 20 to 30% acrylonitrile. Acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS) is a triblock copolymer of petrochemical origin. GHS Hazard Statements: H226 (12.5%): Flammable liquid and vapor [Warning Flammable liquids]H302 (12.5%): Harmful if swallowed [Warning Acute toxicity, oral]H312 (12.5%): Harmful in contact with skin [Warning Acute toxicity, dermal]H315 (87.5%): Causes skin irritation [Warning Skin corrosion/irritation]H319 (87.5%): Causes serious eye irritation [Warning Serious eye damage/eye … Flash point: 88 °F storage temp. Jesper Kjølholt, Marlies Warming, Survey of styrene, The Danish Environmental Protection Agency Strandgade 29, 1401 Copenhagen K Denmark. This page allows searchingof all reactions involving this species. Product name: SBR 1502 (STYRENE-BUTADIENE RUBBER) ... Melting point/freezing point. The proportions can vary from 15% to 35% acrylonitrile, 5% to 30% butadiene and 40% to 60% styrene. International Journal of Trend in Research and Development, Volume 4(4), ISSN: 2394-9333. Chemical Properties of Styrene (CAS 100-42-5) Download as PDF file Download as Excel file Download as 2D mole file Predict properties. [15] Meanwhile, other chemists had been investigating another component of storax, namely, cinnamic acid. The Last Chancer Who Survived Norristown, PA I've used boiling water before too and it worked well, I just held the piece in the water with a set of BBQ tongs. Advantages: Higher elongation at break and better low temperature properties compared to other grades of SEBS TPE (35A - 95A). Ramesan Preparation and properties of different functional group containing styrene butadiene rubberJournal of the Chilean Chemical Society54(1):23-27 • 2008, Richard A. Poillucci and Assistant Professor Christopher J. Hansen Reducing use of styrene monomer in unsaturated polyester resins. Melting temperature: 270 o C (syndiotactic) Glass transition temperature: 100 o C: ... We end up with the polybutadiene copolymerizing with the styrene monomer, to get a type of copolymer called a graft copolymer. [20][30][31][32] Styrene is largely metabolized into styrene oxide in humans, resulting from oxidation by cytochrome P450. [11] They had also determined that Simon's "styrol oxide" – which they renamed "metastyrol" – had the same empirical formula as styrene. [45][46], The neurotoxic[47] properties of styrene have also been studied and reported effects include effects on vision[48] (although unable to reproduce in a subsequent study[49]) and on hearing functions. 2-8°C solubility 0.24g/l pka >14 (Schwarzenbach et al., 1993) form Liquid color Colorless Specific Gravity 0.909 Odor Threshold 0.035ppm [33] The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has described styrene to be "a suspected toxin to the gastrointestinal tract, kidney, and respiratory system, among others". As the difference in boiling points between the two compounds is only 9 °C at ambient pressure this necessitates the use of a series of distillation columns. Simulation to Production of Styrene by Catalytic Dehydrogenation of Ethyl Benzene. It's a type of copolymer called a block copolymer. They concluded, "The findings have to be interpreted with caution, due to the company based exposure assessment, but the possible association between exposures in the reinforced plastics industry, mainly styrene, and degenerative disorders of the nervous system and pancreatic cancer, deserves attention". Styrene-Ethylene-Butylene-Styrene Thermoplastic Elastomer (SEBS) Properties and Applications. As such, the two production processes are often highly integrated. The reactive site was the N-7 site of guanine.The normal isomer (attack at CH2 of styrene oxides) and the abnormal isomer (attack at CH) were obtained. Thirteen people reportedly died and over 200 people were hospitalized. +Add Attachment [8][9] He also noticed that when styrol was exposed to air, light, or heat, it gradually transformed into a hard, rubber-like substance, which he called "styrol oxide". [13] In 1865, the German chemist Emil Erlenmeyer found that styrene could form a dimer,[14] and in 1866 the French chemist Marcelin Berthelot stated that "metastyrol" was a polymer of styrene (i.e. When cooled below the melting point, SIS’s with a low styrene content phase-separate into nano-sized polystyrene spheres imbedded in an isoprene matrix whereas an increase of the styrene content leads to … [18] Eventually, in 1876, the Dutch chemist van 't Hoff resolved the ambiguity: the optical activity of the styrene that was obtained by distilling storax resin was due to a contaminant.[19]. Styrene is regarded as a "known carcinogen", especially in case of eye contact, but also in case of skin contact, of ingestion and of inhalation, according to several sources. [12] Furthermore, they could obtain styrene by dry-distilling "metastyrol". [44] Various regulatory bodies refer to styrene, in various contexts, as a possible or potential human carcinogen. At 100 °C it will polymerise at a rate of ~2% per hour, and more rapidly than this at higher temperatures. They had found that cinnamic acid could be decarboxylated to form "cinnamene" (or "cinnamol"), which appeared to be styrene. Acrylonitrile butadiene styrene is a common thermoplastic polymer. Follow us on Facebook! Chemsrc provides Styrene(CAS#:100-42-5) MSDS, density, melting point, boiling point, structure, formula, molecular weight etc. Subject: Styrene melting point... Necros. [40] In 2012, the Danish EPA concluded that the styrene data do not support a cancer concern for styrene. Styrene monomer is a basic building blo.... (File Format: Jpg, Gif, Png, PDF,Zip,Txt,doc or xls Max Size: 3MB), H361-H225-H301+H311+H331-H370-H226-H315-H319-H332-H361d-H372, P210-P260-P280-P301+P310-P311-P201-P261-P304+P340+P312-P308+P313-P303+P361+P353-P305+P351+P338-P405-P501a, 10-20-36/38-40-36/37/38-39/23/24/25-23/24/25-11-48/20-63, Styrene-acrylic latex paint for exterior wall, sulfonic ion exchange membrane based on polypropylene/poly (ST-DVB), 1-Methyl-3-(a-cyclopentylmandeloyloxy)pyrrolidinehydrochloride, Anion exchange resin,strong basic styrene, Glass fiber reinforced plastic cooling tower, Cangzhou Wanyou New Material Technology Co.,Ltd, 1,2-Dibromo-1-phenylethene,(E)-1,2-Dibromo-1-phenylethene. [39] Despite this claim, work has been done by Danish researchers to investigate the relationship between occupational exposure to styrene and cancer. The crude ethylbenzene/styrene product is then purified by distillation. [57][58], InChI=1S/C8H8/c1-2-8-6-4-3-5-7-8/h2-7H,1H2, Except where otherwise noted, data are given for materials in their. LGCD-4201E CAS NO. 72 °C Jean-Claude Bradley Open Melting Point Dataset 925: 75 °C Jean-Claude Bradley Open Melting Point Dataset 20883: 70-74 °C Alfa Aesar B24990: 71 °C Biosynth W-100240: 75 °C Parchem – fine & specialty chemicals 35283: 70-74 °C Sigma-Aldrich ALDRICH-178012 Styrene production from ethyl benzene, Faculty of Biochemical andChemical EngineeringTechnical Chemistry A (Chemical Process Development). beta-Nitrostyrene is used as a chain stopper in styrene type polymerization reactions for the production of polystyrene plastics, synthetic rubber, and resins. 200,000 (GPC), STYRENE STANDARD FOR EPA METHODS*5000 UG/ML. As such, the two production processes are often highly integrated. The International Agency for Research on Cancer considers styrene to be "probably carcinogenic to humans". Its uses include car tyres, gaskets and shoe heels and soles. The reaction followed second order kinetics. [23] Exelus Inc. claims to have developed this process with commercially viable selectivities, at 400–425 °C and atmospheric pressure, by forcing these components through a proprietary zeolitic catalyst. Styrene is named after storax balsam, the resin of Liquidambar trees of the Altingiaceae plant family. Styrene–Butadiene copolymer (SBR) is synthetic rubber and again is not oil, ozone or weather resisistant. These materials are used in rubber, plastic, insulation, fiberglass, pipes, automobile and boat parts, food containers, and carpet backing. ABS is amorphous and therefore has no true melting point. Commercially significant products include polystyrene, ABS, styrene-butadiene (SBR) rubber, styrene-butadiene latex, SIS (styrene-isoprene-styrene), S-EB-S (styrene-ethylene/butylene-styrene), styrene-divinylbenzene (S-DVB), styrene-acrylonitrile resin (SAN), and unsaturated polyesters used in resins and thermosetting compounds. 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